The Effect of Type of Corrective Feedback (Direct vs. Indirect) on Iranian Pre-Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing

Authors

1 Associate professor of TESOL, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of English, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

 
This study investigated the effect of gender and type of written corrective feedback (WCF) on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ writing. Four intact classes were assigned to experimental and two intact classes to control groups. The learners were homogenized using a pre-test which was followed by sixteen sessions lasting one hour and forty five minutes. After receiving instruction on how to write a standard short essay, while the participants in the experimental group one (n = 36) received Direct Corrective Feedback and the participants in the experimental group two (n = 33) received Indirect Corrective Feedback, the learners in the control group (n = 38) received no feedback on their writing except for an overall grade. The statistical analysis tools of t-test and two-way ANOVA on the post-test and a final exam, were used to check whether there were any significant differences in the participants' writing ability. Statistically significant differences were found between control and experimental groups on the dependent variable of writing ability. The students who received direct WCF performed significantly better than those who received indirect WCF and those in control groups, gender had also a significant impact on the learners' writing ability with females performing better than males.

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