Document Type : Research Articles


1 PhD Student in TEFL, Department of English Language, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor of TESOL, Department of English Language, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran.


The present study investigated the effect of extensive and intensive listening on the accuracy of tense use among EFL learners in Iran. It was based on pre-test post-test with intact classes. According to the purpose of the study, a sample (n = 60) of homogeneous participants were selected. From among the 6 intact classes, one experimental group (n = 19, 9 male and 10 female participants) was identified to take intensive listening method as treatment, another experimental group (n = 20, 12 male and 8 female participants) was identified to take extensive listening as a treatment, and a control group (n = 21, 9 male and 12 female participants) was identified in order to not take intensive listening or extensive listening activities.
All groups of the study were given pre-test of verb tense usage in order to measure their grammatical knowledge in verb tense prior to the treatments of the study. After finishing twenty five sessions of treatments for all groups, a post-test including verb tense was given to the participants. The data gathered from the study were compared through SPSS. It was found that extensive listening and intensive listening had positive effects on the accuracy of tense use among EFL learners in Iran. In addition it was found that none of intensive listening group and extensive listening group outperformed each other and there was not any significant difference between these two groups' performances.


Main Subjects

Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی تاثیر گوش دادن متمرکز و غیر متمرکز بر روی استفاده از زمان فعل ها در میان یادگیرندگان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی

Abstract [فارسی]

در این مطالعه، تاثیر گوش دادن متمرکز و غیر متمرکز بر روی استفاده ی درست از زمان فعل ها در بین یادگیرندگان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تحقیق حاضر بر اساس روش پیش آزمون – پس آزمون با کلاس های دست نخورده بود. بر اساس هدف این مطالعه، یک نمونه ی 60 نفری ازشرکت کنندگان همگن انتخاب شد. از میان 6 کلاس دست نخورده، یک گروه آزمایشی (19 نفر، 9 مردو 10 زنشرکتکننده) انتخاب شد تا مهارت شنیداری متمرکز به عنوان رویه ی این کلاس مورد آزمایش قرار بگیرد. یک گروه تجربی دیگر (20 نفر، 12 مردو 8 زن شرکت کننده) انتخاب شد تا مهارت شنیداری غیر متمرکز به عنوان رویه ی این کلاس مورد آزمایش قرار بگیرد؛ و گروه کنترل (21 نفر، 9 مردو 12 زن شرکت کننده) انتخاب شد که هیچ کدام از مهارت های شنیداری متمرکز یا غیر متمرکز در این کلاس به یادگیرندگان ارائه نشد. به تمامی این گروه ها پیش تستی در مورد استفاده از زمان فعل ها داده شد تا دانش گرامری آنها در حوزه ی زمان فعل ها قبل از شروع مطالعه اندازه گیری شود. پس ازاتمام بیست وپنج جلسه ازرویه ی کلاسی برای هر یک ازگروهها، یک پس آزمون که شامل زمان فعل ها هم می شد به شرکت کنندگان داده شد. داده های جمع آوری شده از این مطالعه، بااستفاده ازنرم افزارآماری  SPSSمورد مقایسه قرارگرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که گوش دادن متمرکز و غیر متمرکز، تاثیر مثبتی بر روی استفاده ی درست از زمان فعل ها در میان یادگیرندگان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی دارد. علاوه بر این، مشخص شد که هیچ یک ازگروه های شنیداری متمرکز و غیر متمرکز بر یکدیگر برتری نداشتندواختلاف معناداری بین عملکرد این دوگروه وجود نداشت.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • شنیداری متمرکز
  • شنیداری غیر متمرکز
  • زمان فعل ها
  • یادگیرندگان زبان انگلیسی
  • و درستی
Amini, D., &Shamlou, M. (2014).Effect of metacognitive strategy training and perfectionism on listening comprehension sub-processes.Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamic and Advances, 2(1), 57-70.
Antle J. B. (2011). Extensive listening and how it affects reading speed. In A. Stewart (Ed.), JALT2010 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT.
Benson, P.,&Voller, P. (1997).Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Longman.
Brett, A., Rothlein, L., & Hurley, M. (1996).Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories and explanations of target words.The Elementary School Journal, 96, 415–422.
Brown, R., Waring, R. &Donkaewbua, S. (2008).“Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories”.Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(2),136–63.
Byrd, P.,& Benson, B. (2001).Applied English grammar. USA: Harcourt College Publishers.
Chang, C. S. (2009). Gains to L2 Listeners from reading while listening versus listening only in comprehending short stories.System, 37, 652–663.
Chung, L. S. (2010). Developing intensive listening skill: A case study of long-term dictation task using rapid speed. Retrieved 2015-11-20, from
Cutting, M. (2002).Making the Transition to Effective Self-access Listening.The Language Teacher, 28(6), 21-24.
Davis, C. (1995). Extensive Reading: An expensive extravagance? ELT Journal 49(4).
Davis, J., &Liss, R. (2006).Effective Academic Writing 3: The Essay. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Day.R.,&Bamford, J. (1998).Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elley, W. B. (1989). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories.Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 174–187.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gilakjani, A. P., &Ahmadi, M. R. (2011).A Study of factors affecting EFL learners’ English listening comprehension and the strategies for improvement. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 977-988.
Harmer, J. (2001).The practice of English language teaching.Essex: Pearson Education.
Hayati, A., &Mohmedi, F. (2011).“The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners”, British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(1),181–192.
Jafarpur, A., &Yamini, M. (1993). Does practice with dictation improve language skills? System, 21, 359–369.
Kavaliauskienė, G., &Darginavičienė, I. (2009). Dictation in the ESP classroom: A tool to improve language proficiency. English for Specific Purposes World, 8(23),
Khezrlou, S. (2012).The relationship between cognitive and metacognitive strategies, age and level of education.The Reading Matrix, 12(1), 50-61.
Khezrlou, S. (2018). Form-focused instruction in CALL: What do learners think? RELC, 1-17.
Khezrlou, S., Ellis, R., &Sadeghi, K. (2017).Effects of computer-assisted glosses on EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension in three learning conditions.System, 65, 104-116.
Kiany, G. R., &Shiramiry, E. (2002).The effects of frequent dictation on the listening comprehension ability of elementary EFL learners.TESL Canada Journal, 20(1), 57–63.
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.
Kuo, Y. (2010). Using partial dictation of an English teaching radio program to enhance EFL learners’ listening comprehension.Asian EFL Journal.Professional Teaching Articles, 47, 4–29.
Lai, F. K. (1993). The effect of a summer reading course on reading and writing skills.System, 21, 87–100.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2003). Teaching language from grammar to grammaring. Canada: Thomson Heinle.
Latifi, M., Mobalegh, A., &Mohammadi, M. (2011).Movie Subtitles and the Improvement of Listening Comprehension Ability: Does it help? Journal of Language Teaching andLearning, 1(2), 18-29.
Lush, B.(2002).Writing errors: A study of Thai students' writing errors.Thai TESOL BULLETIN, 15(1), 75-82.
Nowruzi, M., &Vahedi, E. (2013). The effect of discourse signaling cues on foreign language listening comprehension of Iranian EFL students. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamic and Advances, 1(2), 56-69.
Onoda, S. (2010).Investigating learners’ pathways to proficiency development. Paper presented at the 2010 American Association of Applied Linguistics at Atlanta, Georgia, on March 6th, 2011. Atlanta
Pongsiriwet, C. (2001). “Relationships among grammatical accuracy, discourse features, and the quality of second language writing: the case of Thai EFL learner”. Doctor degree, West Virginia University, 5, 70-75.
Posteguillo, S., & Palmer, J. C. (2000). Reflective teaching in EFL: Integrating theory and practice. TESL-EJ, 4(3), May 2000 Retrieved January 28, 2009, from TESL-EJ/ej15/cf1.html.
Rahimi, M. (2008).Using dictation to improve language proficiency.Asian EFL Journal, 10(1). Retrieved on August 25, 2008, from
Rashtchi, M., NouroziKhiabani, M., &Roumiani, N. (2012).The effect of listening to self audio-taped journals on Iranian EFL learners' grammar knowledge.Advances in Asian Social Science (AASS), 4(1).
Renandya, W. A.,Rajan, B. R. S., & Jacobs, G. M. (1999).Extensive Reading with adult learners of English as a second language.RELC Journal, 30(1), 39-61
Senechal, M., & Cornell, E. (1993).Vocabulary acquisition through shared experiences.Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 361–374.
Sheu, S. P. H. (2003). Extensive Reading with EFL learners at beginning level.TESL Reporter, 36, 8–26.
Trofimovich, P., Lightbown, P. M., Halter H.R., & Song, H. (2009). Comprehension-Based Practice: The Development of L2 Pronunciation in a Listening and Reading Program, SSLA, 31, 609-639
Van Dijk, T. A. (1988). News as discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wenden, A. L. (2002). Learner development in language learning.Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 32-55.
White, G. (2008). Listening and good language learners.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.