MA in TEFL, Department of English Language and Literature, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
Writing academic texts by novice researchers requires a framework and support by learning how to cite the works of others. However, compared to the studies on other academic writings, studying citations by considering certainty markers has received little attention. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the shifts of certainty markers (hedges and boosters) in pre- and post-citation pieces of arguments in Applied Linguistic Textbooks. To this end, representative samples of about 50 Applied Linguistic Textbooks in 18 different topic areas were selected randomly from among 100 Textbooks and were analyzed on the basis of Hyland’s (2005) model. The researchers studied both direct/indirect and integral/non-integral citations and examined their pre- and post-citation parts in order to identify shifts of certainty that occurs in pre- and post-citation arguments. The analysis of the citations resulted in identification of nine different patterns. The study concludes with some implications for post-graduate students, novice researchers, academic writers and readers to equip themselves with discoursal properties required for writing academic textbooks.