Document Type : Book Review


Associate Professor of English Language and Didactics, Faculty of Education and Arts, Nord University, Norway



Language learning strategies, “the techniques or devices which a learner may use to acquire knowledge” (Rubin, 1975, p. 43) or more pertinently “complex, dynamic thoughts and actions, selected and used by learners with some degree of consciousness in specific contexts” (Oxford, 2017, p. 48), have been widely researched and discussed for more than forty years since the mid-1970s. Shifting the focus to language learner from language teacher, from language teaching methodology to language learning styles, and from transfer of information to construction of knowledge as the fulcra of language learning process are qualities which brought language learning strategies into high vogue. The language learner no longer was viewed as an inert and passive meaning-apprehending receptacle devoid of creative agency; rather, language learner was viewed as an active and meaning-giving individual who is endowed with creative agency for envisioning and generating a course of actions to achieve his/her language using and learning objectives. Thus, language learner’s capacity to perform intentional and goal-oriented actions regarding how to initiate, guide, and sustain language learning process and how to attain high language proficiency received considerable attention in the extant research literature. The great swell of academic interest in language learning strategies reached its sharp crescendo in the 1980s and early 1990s (e.g., O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Cohen, 1998).


Main Subjects

Article Title [فارسی]

معرفی کتاب: آموزش راهبردهای یادگیری زبان خارجی: مسائل و دستورالعمل ها

Keywords [فارسی]

  • راهبردهای یادگیری زبان
  • آموزش راهبردهای فراگیری زبان
Bandura, A. (1978). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1(4), 139–161.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. Harlow, England: Longman.
Dörnyei, Z., & Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43-69.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2013). Teaching and researching: Motivation (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Karimi-Aghdam, S. (2016a). Rethinking Vygotskian cultural-historical theory in light of Pepperian root metaphor theory: Dynamic interplay of organicism and contextualism. Human Development, 59 (5), 251-282.
Karimi-Aghdam, S. (2016b). A dialectical reading of dynamic systems theory: Transcending socialized cognition and cognized social dualism in L2 studies. Language and Sociocultural Theory, 3(1), 55-82.
O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41–51.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573.
Weiner, B. (2010). Attribution theory. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGraw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education, (vol. 6, pp. 558-563). Oxford: Elsevier.