Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Candidate, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran,

3 3Associate Professor, Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran,


Substantial research has been done on assessment literacy (AL), and several questionnaires have been developed to measure AL. However, little (if any) research has attempted to provide a comprehensive assessment literacy questionnaire. To fill this gap, the present study attempted to develop an assessment literacy questionnaire which encompasses not only the areas identified by previous research, but also those not identified by those studies. Moreover, attempt was made to identify the components that were better predictors of Iranian EFL teachers’ assessment literacy. To this end, first previous AL questionnaires were explored and their main items were identified. Then, researchers-made items were added. Meanwhile, interviews were conducted with experts, who suggested some additional items. Then, 386 Iranian teachers of English were selected through convenience sampling on the basis of availability to fill in the first draft of the questionnaires that assessed different aspects of assessment literacy in order to validate it. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted, and a questionnaire with 35 items which evaluated nine components of assessment literacy was developed. In addition, the validated, final version of the AL questionnaire was distributed among 146 EFL teachers to identify the better predictor components of AL among Iranian EFL teachers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that “administering, rating, and interpreting test” was the best predictor of teachers’ AL in comparison to other components. The theoretical as well as practical implications of the findings are also discussed.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

بسوی ساخت پرسشنامه سواد سنجش: مطالعۀ موردی معلمان زبان انگلیسی در ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • بهناز رستگار 1
  • دکتر عباسعلی زارعی 2
  • دکتر رجب اسفندیاری 3

1 دانشجوی دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

2 دانشیار آموزش زبان انگلیسی، گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

3 دانشیار آموزش زبان انگلیسی، گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران

Abstract [Persian]

تحقیقات زیادی در مورد سواد سنجش به صورت کلی و پرسشنامه سواد سنجش به صورت خاص انجام شده است. با این حال، تحقیقات کمی در مورد ارائه پرسشنامه جامع در حیطه سواد سنجش انجام شده است. برای پر کردن این شکاف، پژوهشگران در این مطالعه سعی در تهیه پرسشنامه سواد سنجشی دارند که نه تنها حوزه­های شناسایی شده در پژوهشهای پیشین، بلکه مواردی را که توسط آنان در ارزشیابی سواد سنجش معلمان زبان دوم شناسایی نشده است را در بر گیرد. به منظور تحقق بخشیدن به این هدف، ابتدا پرسشنامه های قبلی در حیطه سواد سنجش مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و آیتم های اصلی آنان شناسایی شد. سپس تعدادی آیتم توسط محققان به آیتم­های موجود اضافه گردید. همچنین با افراد متخصص در این زمینه نیز مصاحبه شد. سپس 386 مدرس بان انگلیسی ایرانی انتخاب شدند تا اولین پیش نویس پرسشنامه­ای که جنبه­های مختلف سواد سنجش را مورد ارزیابی قرار میداد را به منظور اعتبار سنجی پرسشنامه تکمیل کنند. تجزیه و تحلیل مولفه اصلی با بکارگیری تحلیل عاملی انجام شد و پرسشنامه­ای با 35 آیتم که 9 مولفه اصلی سواد سنجش را ارزیابی  می­کرد تهیه شد. در مرحله دوم مطالعه، نسخه نهایی و اعتبار سنجی شده از پرسشنامه سواد سنجش بین 146 مدرس زبان انگلیسی ایرانی توزیع شد تا مولفه های پیش بینی کننده­ی سواد سنجش معلمان زبان انگلیسی ایرانی شناسایی شود. در نهایت تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه نشان داد که "برگزاری و نمره دهی و تعبیر نتایج آزمون" بهترین مولفه پیش بینی کننده سواد سنجش معلمان در مقایسه با سایر مولفه های سواد سنجش بود. کاربردهای این یافته­ها نیز در مطالعه مورد بحث قرار گرفته است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • پرسشنامه
  • سواد سنجش
  • زبان انگلیسی
  • معلمان زبان
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